Contraceptive Technology and Reproductive Health Series: Home Page Contraceptive Technology and Reproductive Health Series Back to FHI Website
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Introduction Contents Post-Test References Go To Presenter Info


Section 1

- Introduction
- Overview
- Objectives
- Infections
- Most Common
- Ulcerative
- Non-Ulcerative
- Curable
- Incurable
- Factors
- Consequences
> Risk of HIV
- STD Control
- Transmitters
- Containing
- Social Norms
- Condom Use
- Management
- Challenges
- Program Level
- Women at Risk
- Reaching Men
- Adolescents
- Adolescents
- Reaching
- Prevention
- Management
- Summary

Section 2
Section 3


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Section 1 - STDs: An Overview

Other STDs Increase Risk of HIV Infection

  • Presence of other STDs increases the risk of HIV acquisition
    • ulcerative STDs: 10 to 300 times per exposure
    • non-ulcerative STDs: 3 to 10 times per exposure

  • In those already HIV-infected, presence of another STD aids HIV transmission

Source: Hayes et al, 1995; Dallabetta, 1996.
Slide 11

Persons with STDs other than HIV are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. The presence of an STD ulcer can allow HIV to enter the bloodstream directly, increasing the risk of acquiring HIV infection 10 to 300 times per exposure; that is, each time someone has sexual intercourse with an infected person. If a person has a non-ulcerative STD, the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases three to 10 times per exposure.

Among HIV-infected persons, the presence of another STD can make HIV transmission to others more likely. For instance, gonorrhea and chlamydia in an HIV-infected man or woman appear to increase the amount of HIV virus shed in the genital tract, making HIV transmission to a partner more likely.

For these reasons, controlling STDs has become an important strategy for preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS.



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