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Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)
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Section 1

- Introduction
- Objectives
- Safety
- Overview
- Early IUDs
- Copper IUDs
- Mechanisms
- Failure Rates
- Comparison
- Method Costs
- Characteristics
- Characteristics
- Incidence Rate
- Reducing Risk
- Perforations
- Ectopic
- Expulsions
- Rates

Section 2
Section 3


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Section 1 - Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

PID is an infection of the woman's upper genital tract

The risk of PID in IUD users is:

  • low overall
  • higher during first 20 days after insertion
  • due mostly to infection with gonorrhea and chlamydia
  • similar to risk of PID in women with gonorrhea and chlamydia who are not using an IUD

Slide 13

Pelvic inflammatory disease, also known as PID, is an infection of the woman’s upper genital tract. Overall risk of PID associated with the IUD is very low, although there is a somewhat increased risk of PID during the first 20 days after insertion. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are the reason some women develop PID. When the IUD is inserted through an infected cervix, there is a chance that it will carry the infection from the lower to the upper genital tract. However, women with undiagnosed and untreated gonorrhea or chlamydia who are not using the IUD develop PID as well. Based on available evidence, it appears that PID rates are similar among women with STIs with or without the IUD being inserted, and the IUD itself contributes very little to the risk of PID.



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