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Barrier Methods
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Summary Fact Sheet

WHO Eligibility Criteria



General References

Boston Women’s Health Book Collective. The New Our Bodies, Ourselves — A Book by and for Women. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Cates W. Contraception, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases: Why isn’t a simple solution possible? Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143(4):311-18.

Cates W. Contraceptive choice, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection and future fecundity. J Br Fertil Soc 1996; 1(1):18-22.

Cates W, Stone KM. Family planning, sexually transmitted diseases and contraceptive choice: A literature update — part I. Fam Plann Perspect 1992; 24(2):75-84.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Barrier protection against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR 1993; 42:589-91, 597.

Centers for Disease Control. Family Planning Methods and Practices: Africa. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control, 1983.

Family Health International. Barrier methods. Network 1996; 16(3).

Feldblum P, Joanis C. Modern Barrier Methods: Effective Contraception and Disease Prevention. Durham, NC: Family Health International, 1994.

Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, et al. (eds). Contraceptive Technology 16th Revised Edition. New York: Irvington Publishers Inc., 1994.

Jones E, Forrest JD. Contraceptive failure rates based on the 1988 NSFG. Fam Plann Perspect 1992; 24(1):12-19.

Mauck C, Cordero M, Gabelnick H, et al. (eds.). Barrier Contraceptives: Current Status and Future Prospects. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1994.

Program for International Training in Health (INTRAH). Guidelines for Clinical Procedures in Family Planning — A Reference for Trainers. Chapel Hill, NC: INTRAH, 1993.

Trussell J, Hatcher RA, Cates W Jr, et al. Contraceptive failure in the United States: An update. Stud Fam Plann 1990; 21:51-54.

World Health Organization. Improving Access to Quality Care in Family Planning — Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1996.

World Health Organization. Introduction of New Contraceptives into Family Planning Programmes. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1990.

Male Condoms

Kestelman P, Trussell J. Efficacy of the simultaneous use of condoms and spermicides. Fam Plann Perspect 1991; 23(5):226-32.

Liskin L, Wharton C, Blackburn R. Condoms—now more than ever. Popul Rep 1990; H (8).

Oakley D, Bogue E-L. Quality of condom use as reported by female clients of a family planning clinic. Am J Public Health 1995; 85(11):1526-30.

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). Condoms protect against STDs and HIV: Correct and consistent use is key. Outlook, 1994; 12(4).

Richters J, Donovan B, Gerofi J. How often do condoms break or slip off in use? Int J STD AIDS 1993; 4:90-94.

Spruyt A, Steiner M, Joanis C, et al. Identifying condom users at risk of breakage and slippage: Three international sites. FHI unpublished paper, 1996.

Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Glover L, et al. Can condom users likely to experience condom failure be identified? Fam Plann Perspect 1993; 25(5):220-23, 226.

Steiner M, Piedrahita C, Joanis C, et al. Condom breakage and slippage rates among study participants in eight countries. Int Fam Plann Perspect 1994; 20(2):55-58.

Steiner M, Trussell J, Glover L, et al. Standardized protocols for condom breakage and slippage trials: A proposal. Am J Public Health 1994; 84(12):1897-1900.

Thapa S, Prasad CVS, Rao PH, et al. Social marketing of condoms in India. Adv Popul 1994; 2:171-204.

Turjanmaa K, Reunala T. Condoms as a source of latex allergen and cause of contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 1989; 20:360-64.

World Health Organization. Guide to Adapting Instructions on Condom Use. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Global Programme on AIDS, 1992.

Disease Prevention

Badiani R, de Oliveira MR, Pinto P, et al. Empowering Women to Negotiate Safe Sex: A Model from Brazil. XXII National Council for International Health, Washington D.C., June 1995.

Cates W, Holmes KK. Re: Condom efficacy against gonorrhea and nongonococcal urethritis [letter]. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143(8): 843-44.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Barrier protection against HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. MMWR 1993; 42:589-91, 597.

Daly CC, Helling-Giese GE, Mati JK, et al. Contraceptive methods and the transmission of HIV: Implications for family planning. Genitourin Med 1994; 70(2):110-17.

de Vincenzi I. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. N Engl J Med 1994; 331(6):341-46.

Feldblum PJ, Morrison CS, Roddy RE, et al. The effectiveness of barrier methods of contraception in preventing the spread of HIV. AIDS 1995; 9(suppl A):S85-S93.

Feldblum PJ, Weir SS. The protective effect of nonoxynol-9 against HIV infection [letter]. Am J Public Health 1994; 84(6):1032-34.

Focus on spermicides: Controversy over HIV protection persists, despite promising studies of nonoxynol-9. Contracept Tech Update 1994; 15:13-18, 23.

Kassler WJ, Wasserheit JN, Cates W. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Woolf SH, Jonas S, Lawrence RS (eds). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995), 273-90.

Dreiss J, Ngugi E, Holmes K, et al. Efficacy of nonoxynol-9 contraceptive sponge use in preventing heterosexual acquisition of HIV in Nairobi prostitutes. JAMA 1992; 268:477-82.

Ngugi EN, Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, et al. Prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Africa: Effectiveness of condom promotion and health education among prostitutes. Lancet 1988; II(8616): 887-90.

Niruthisard S, Roddy RE, Chutivongse S. Use of nonoxynol-9 and reduction in rate of gonococcal and chlamydial infections. Lancet 1992; 339:1371-75.

Roddy RE. Efficacy of nonoxynol-9 for preventing HIV transmission. In: Senanayake P, Kleinman RL (eds). Family planning: Meeting challenges, promoting choices. Proceedings of the IPPF Family Planning Congress, New Delhi. (New York: Parthenon, 1993), 543-45.

Rojanapithayakorn W, Hanenberg R. The 100 percent condom program in Thailand. AIDS 1996; 10:1-7.

Rosenberg MJ, Davidson AJ, Chen J-H, et al. Barrier contraception and sexually transmitted diseases in women: A comparison of female-dependent methods and condoms. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:669-74.

Saracco A, Musicco M, Nicolosi A, et al. Man-to-woman sexual transmission of HIV: Longitudinal study of 343 steady partners of infected men. J Acq Immune Defic Syndr 1993; 6:497-502.

Steiner M, Joanis C. Acceptability of dual method use. Fam Plann Perspect 1993; 25(5):234.

Weir SS, Feldblum PJ, Zekeng L, et al. The use of nonoxynol-9 for protection against cervical gonorrhea. Am J Public Health 1994; 84:910-14.

Weisman CS, Plichta S, Nathanson CA, et al. Consistency of condom use for disease prevention among adolescent users of oral contraceptives. Fam Plann Perspect 1991; 23(2): 71-74.

Zekeng L, Feldblum PJ, Oliver RM, et al. Barrier contraceptive use and HIV infection among high-risk women in Cameroon. AIDS 1003; 7:725-31.

Spermicides, Diaphragm, Cervical Cap

Bounds W, Guillebaud J, Dominik R, et al. The diaphragm with and without spermicide: A randomized comparative efficacy trial. J Reprod Med 1995; 40(11):764-74.

Cervical cap: Effective, convenient, but overlooked. Contracept Tech Update 1990; 11:49-54.

Chalker R. The Complete Cervical Cap Guide. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.

Hira S, Spruyt A, Feldblum PJ, et al. Spermicide acceptability among patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Zambia. Am J Public Health 1995; 85(8):1098-1103.

Ferreira AE, Araujo MJ, Regina CH, et al. Effectiveness of the diaphragm, used continuously, without spermicide. Contraception 1993; 48:29-35.

Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). Vaginal barrier methods: Underutilized Option? Outlook 1993; 11(4).

Roddy RE, Cordero M, Cordero C, et al. A dosing study of nonoxynol-9 and genital irritation. Int J STD AIDS 1993; 4:165-70.

Rosenberg MJ, Davidson AJ, Chen J-H, et al. Barrier contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases in women: A comparison of female-dependent methods and condoms. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:669-674.

Smith C, Farr MG, Feldblum PJ, et al. Effectiveness of the non-spermicidal fit-free diaphragm. Contraception 1995; 51(5):289-91.

Steiner M, Spruyt A, Joanis C, et al. Acceptability of spermicidal film and foaming tablets among women in three countries. Int Fam Plann Perspect 1995; 21(3):104-07.

The switch is on from foam to film. Contracept Tech Update 1993; 14:169-71.

Trussell J, Strickler J, Vaughan B. Contraceptive efficacy of the diaphragm, the sponge and the cervical cap. Fam Plann Perspect 1993; 25:100-05, 135.

New Methods, Including Female Condom

Elias CJ, Heise LL. Challenges for the development of female-controlled vaginal microbicides. AIDS 1994; 8:1-9.

Farr G, Gabelnick H, Sturgen K, et al. Contraceptive efficacy and acceptability of the female condom. Am J Public Health 1994; 84(12):1897-1900.

Mendez F, Castro A, Ortega A. Use effectiveness of a spermicidal suppository containing benzalkonium chloride. Contraception 1986; 34:353-62.

Psychoyos A, Creatsas G, Hassan E, et al. Spermicidal and antiviral properties of cholic acid: Contraceptive efficacy of a new vaginal sponge (Protectaid) containing sodium cholate. Hum Reprod 1993; 8:866-69.

Shihata AA, Trussell J. New female intravaginal barrier contraceptive device: Preliminary clinical trial. Contraception 1991; 44:11-19.

Shihata AA, Gollub E. Acceptability of a new intravaginal barrier contraceptive (Femcap). Contraception 1992; 46:511-19.

Soper DE, Brockwell NJ, Dalton HP. Evaluation of the effects of a female condom on the female lower genital tract. Contraception 1991; 44:21-29.

Soper DE, Shoupe D, Shangold GA, et al. Prevention of vaginal trichomoniasis by compliant use of the female condom. Sex Transm Dis 1993; 20:137-39.

Stein ZA. Vaginal microbicides and prevention of HIV infection [letter]. Lancet 1994; 343:362-63.

Trussell J, Sturgen K, Strickler J, et al. Comparative contraceptive efficacy of the female condom and other barrier methods. Fam Plann Perspect 1994; 26(2):66-72.

Wisconsin Pharmacal. Reality Female Condom: A Monograph for Healthcare Professionals, Research Findings and Usage Considerations. Chicago, IL: Wisconsin Pharmacal, 1994.