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186 Results Found

  • Published research
    A research utilisation framework for informing global health and development policies and programmes
    This paper describes a simple, four-phase framework to guide global health and development efforts that seek to apply evidence to policies and programs. Application of this framework offers the potential to improve policy and programs by increasing the likelihood that research results will be relevant, well-documented, easily communicated and understood, scalable and built upon existing systems.
  • Published research
    Interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review of the literature
    Findings from this systematic literature review indicate that current evidence on strategies to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents is both sparse and lacking in quality. Further, no intervention strategies targeting adults stood out strongly as warranting adaptation and testing for adolescents. Task shifting and community-based adherence support were the most promising strategies that could be adapted to target adolescents.
  • Published research
    Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality
    Generating a nationally representative sample in low- and middle-income countries typically requires resource-intensive household door-to-door data collection. This paper presents use of an innovative random digit dial, interactive voice response national mobile phone survey in Ghana to yield a national-level random sample in relatively short time. Response rates were comparable to other surveys and offers promise for future data collection in developing countries such as Ghana.
  • Feature
    In Nigeria, the Akwa Ibom AIDS Indicator Survey (AKAIS) generated more accurate data than previously available. The data will be used to improve Akwa Ibom State’s response to HIV.
  • Published research
    Drug interactions between non-rifamycin antibiotics and hormonal contraception: A systematic review
    This study reviewed whether interactions between non-rifamycin antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives result in decreased effectiveness or increased toxicity of either therapy. The authors found that evidence from clinical and pharmacokinetic outcomes studies does not support the existence of drug interactions between hormonal contraception and non-rifamycin antibiotics and state that most women can expect no reduction in hormonal contraceptive effect with the concurrent use of non-rifamycin antibiotics.
  • Published research
    QUENTIN: Reconstruction of disease transmissions from viral quasispecies genomic data
    Genomic analysis has become one of the major tools for disease outbreak investigations. This paper proposes a Quasispecies Evolution, Network-based Transmission Inference (QUENTIN) framework for conducting genomic analyses of outbreaks of highly mutable viruses associated with chronic infections, such as HIV and hepatitis C virus. The QUENTIN framework uses relevant properties of social networks to address previously identified shortcomings of existing computational frameworks for inference of transmission history from viral genomic data.
  • Published research
    High prevalence of HIV drug resistance among newly diagnosed infants aged <18 months: Results from a nationwide surveillance in Nigeria
    The study found a high prevalence of pretreatment HIV drug resistance, predominantly nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) associated, among HIV-infected children (less than 18 months) in Nigeria. The findings support using a non-NNRTI regimen in children less than 3 years of age as a preferred first-line antiretroviral treatment regimen, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Child-friendly, fixed-dose, combination co-formulated drugs need to be widely available in the country.
  • Published research
    Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection
    This analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 viral diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. This provides novel in vivo evidence for a mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection. The data will have significant implications in rational vaccine design.
  • Publication
    This fact sheet summarizes the research agenda being implemented under Envision FP, a five-year contraceptive research award funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development.
  • Published research
    The role of financial incentives along the antiretroviral therapy adherence continuum: A qualitative sub-study of the HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) study
    Offering financial incentives is one strategy to motivate adherence behaviors. This qualitative sub-study examines adherence barriers and the role of financial incentives to increase viral suppression among HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 study participants. The authors suggest that financial incentives may be insufficient to overcome strong social or structural barriers and unnecessary for those committed to remaining adherent.