Explore FHI 360

18 Results Found

  • Published research
    Effect of self-administration versus provider-administered injection of subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on continuation rates in Malawi: A randomised controlled trial
    The authors found that women who self-administered subcutaneous depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC) led to a more than 50 percent increase in pregnancy protection through 12 months compared with provider-administered injection. The findings demonstrate that self-injection can address the stubborn problem of early contraceptive discontinuation and that community health workers can safely train women to self-inject. Malawi plans to introduce DMPA-SC self-injection based on these positive findings.
  • Published research
    Outcomes of compulsory detention compared to community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam
    This research finds conclusive evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is more costeffective than center-based compulsory treatment (CCT) in reducing heroin use, blood-borne virus risk behaviors, drug-related illegal behaviors and monthly drug spending. The authors recommend that policymakers consider allocation of resources for MMT treatment a higher priority and scale down CCT models.
  • Feature
    In Nigeria, the Akwa Ibom AIDS Indicator Survey (AKAIS) generated more accurate data than previously available. The data will be used to improve Akwa Ibom State’s response to HIV.
  • Published research
    Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection
    This analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 viral diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. This provides novel in vivo evidence for a mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection. The data will have significant implications in rational vaccine design.
  • Published research
    A measurement error model approach to survey data integration: Combining information from two surveys
    Combining information from two surveys is a challenge in survey sampling, particularly when there are overlapping geographies. In such cases, dual frame estimation methods are employed to derive overall estimates while avoiding double contributions coming from the overlap area. In this paper, measurement error models were layered onto the dual frame approach, to appropriately account for potential measurement errors. The approach can be generalized to combine more than two sources of information.
  • Published research
    Comparing focus groups and individual interviews: Findings from a randomized study
    Researchers often question using focus groups or individual interviews for their studies. The findings in this article are based on a randomized study in which data from focus groups and individual interviews were compared. The authors found that sensitive and personal disclosures were more likely in a focus group and some sensitive themes only occurred in a focus group. The authors suggest these findings can help researchers align qualitative data collections methods with study objectives.
  • Published research
    Safety and tolerability of maraviroc-containing regimens to prevent HIV infection in women: A phase 2 randomized trial
    This study shows that, for U.S. women at risk of HIV infection, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens containing maraviroc are safe and well-tolerated, compared with the standard regimen of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. The authors also found that no new infections occurred with the study regimen, compared with the standard regimen, but more research is needed to determine whether that outcome is because of the study drug and whether the enrolled population was lower risk than anticipated.
  • Published research
    HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia: Results from a national Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey
    This study was the second national biological and behavioral survey among transgender women in Cambodia. The authors found that HIV prevalence among transgender women remains persistently high. To achieve the goal of eliminating HIV, they suggest that effective combination prevention strategies addressing the risk factors among transgender women be strengthened.
  • Published research
    Effect of low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids on mortality of hospitalized adolescents and adults with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral pneumonia
    The authors analyzed the effect of corticosteroids to reduce mortality from pneumonia caused by a specific strain of influenza A called (H1N1)pdm09. Using observational data of hospitalized adolescent and adult patients with this type of pneumonia, the findings suggest that low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids might reduce the mortality of patients with severe pneumonia that causes low blood oxygen levels. However, there was no indication that patients with less severe disease benefited from corticosteroid therapy.
  • Published research
    Evidence-based strategies for shortening informed consent forms in clinical research
    Long informed consent forms can negatively affect potential participants’ understanding of clinical research. The authors present three strategies for reducing form length that were developed by consensus among six groups of key stakeholders. Implementing these strategies will facilitate adoption of the proposed changes to U.S. regulations on form length, to make the consent process more useful for participants.