Explore FHI 360

24 Results Found

  • Practice Area
    There is an art to improving lives. And it’s in our science.
  • Published research
    Outcomes of compulsory detention compared to community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam
    This research finds conclusive evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is more costeffective than center-based compulsory treatment (CCT) in reducing heroin use, blood-borne virus risk behaviors, drug-related illegal behaviors and monthly drug spending. The authors recommend that policymakers consider allocation of resources for MMT treatment a higher priority and scale down CCT models.
  • Published research
    A research utilisation framework for informing global health and development policies and programmes
    This paper describes a simple, four-phase framework to guide global health and development efforts that seek to apply evidence to policies and programs. Application of this framework offers the potential to improve policy and programs by increasing the likelihood that research results will be relevant, well-documented, easily communicated and understood, scalable and built upon existing systems.
  • Published research
    Interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review of the literature
    Findings from this systematic literature review indicate that current evidence on strategies to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adolescents is both sparse and lacking in quality. Further, no intervention strategies targeting adults stood out strongly as warranting adaptation and testing for adolescents. Task shifting and community-based adherence support were the most promising strategies that could be adapted to target adolescents.
  • Published research
    High prevalence of HIV drug resistance among newly diagnosed infants aged <18 months: Results from a nationwide surveillance in Nigeria
    The study found a high prevalence of pretreatment HIV drug resistance, predominantly nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) associated, among HIV-infected children (less than 18 months) in Nigeria. The findings support using a non-NNRTI regimen in children less than 3 years of age as a preferred first-line antiretroviral treatment regimen, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Child-friendly, fixed-dose, combination co-formulated drugs need to be widely available in the country.
  • Published research
    Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection
    This analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 viral diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. This provides novel in vivo evidence for a mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection. The data will have significant implications in rational vaccine design.
  • Published research
    Overweight and obesity in local media: An analysis of media coverage in CDC-funded communities
    Earned media can be part of addressing overweight and obesity by emphasizing prevention and both environmental and individual causes and solutions. This paper examines almost 3,000 news stories related to overweight and obesity in newspaper and television channels in multiple locations across the United States. The authors suggest future research could explore if public perception or news coverage on overweight and obesity changes.
  • Published research
    Safety and tolerability of maraviroc-containing regimens to prevent HIV infection in women: A phase 2 randomized trial
    This study shows that, for U.S. women at risk of HIV infection, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) regimens containing maraviroc are safe and well-tolerated, compared with the standard regimen of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. The authors also found that no new infections occurred with the study regimen, compared with the standard regimen, but more research is needed to determine whether that outcome is because of the study drug and whether the enrolled population was lower risk than anticipated.
  • Published research
    Electronic health, telemedicine and new paradigms for training and care
    This qualitative literature review assesses eHealth and mHealth training methods for HIV care that were published between 2016 and 2017. Notable findings were that the merging of electronic medical records systems improved telemedicine through mobile networks and instant messaging services to low-resource areas, and that few trials established efficient strategies to train HIV care providers or extenders on HIV care outcomes. The authors recommend more rigorous testing of electronic training interventions to demonstrate the impact on services for people living with HIV.
  • Published research
    Design of the HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) study: A study to evaluate the feasibility of an enhanced test, linkto-care, plus treat approach for HIV prevention in the United States
    This article outlines the design of a multicomponent, community-based study evaluating the feasibility of the “test and treat” approach to HIV prevention in the United States. The authors found that the HIV Prevention Trails Network (HPTN) 065 study demonstrated the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a trial that includes several community sites and involves pragmatic approaches to study implementation and evaluation.