Timothy Mastro, MD, DTM&HChief Science Officer
Areas of expertise
- HIV prevention, care and treatment research and programs
- Infectious diseases
- Global public health and development
- Clinical trials design and implementation
Dr. Timothy Mastro serves as FHI 360’s Chief Science Officer, responsible for advancing the quality of science across the organization and growing research and evaluation capabilities in both the natural and social sciences.
In his previous role as FHI 360’s Director of Global Health, Population and Nutrition, Mastro oversaw global research and technical work across a broad range of health, population and nutrition areas. Activities under his direction included global health research, global health programs, program sciences and technical support, nutrition and food security, contraceptive technology innovation and science facilitation.
Prior to joining FHI 360 in 2008, Mastro served in scientific leadership positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for 20 years. His research and work in programs at CDC’s Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Global AIDS Program addressed the prevention and treatment of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis. Mastro first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer. From 1993 to 2000, he served in Bangkok as director of the CDC-Thai Ministry of Public Health HIV/AIDS Collaboration. Mastro began his international public health career on the Thai-Cambodian border in 1983, where he served as a physician and medical coordinator of the United Nations Border Relief Operation through 1985.
Mastro has a bachelor’s degree in biology from Colgate University and a Doctor of Medicine from Saint Louis University. He trained in internal medicine at New York City’s Metropolitan Hospital and Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He studied at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and received a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the Royal College of Physicians of London. Mastro is board certified in internal medicine, a fellow of the American College of Physicians and a member of the American Epidemiological Society. He is also Adjunct Professor of Epidemiology in the Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Mastro received numerous awards at CDC and is the author or co-author of more than 180 published articles and book chapters.
- The issues we must address to #EndHIV4Her
- What do AIDS 2016 in Durban and integrated development have in common?
- Keeping up the momentum to control TB
- Want a Healthy World? Let the HIV Response Lead the Way
- A unique partnership develops emerging global health researchers
- Bringing heart and mind to the fight against HIV
Projects & Resources
In June 2014, the U.S. Agency for International Development awarded FHI 360 the Linkages across the Continuum of HIV Services for Key Populations Affected by HIV Project (LINKAGES), a five-year cooperative agreement funded by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
FHI 360 serves as the leadership and operations center for the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), a worldwide, collaborative, clinical trials network that develops and tests the safety and efficacy of primarily nonvaccine interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV.
Linkages across the Continuum of HIV Services for Key Populations Affected by HIV (LINKAGES): Country briefs and reports
LINKAGES briefs and reports from country programs offer up-to-date knowledge and tools that can be utilized to strengthen key population HIV and AIDS programming efforts worldwide.
This brief aims to inform program implementers and policymakers on the key issues faced by sex workers, what has worked in HIV prevention efforts with sex workers, and actions that can be taken to better meet the needs of sex workers in the future.
This brief seeks to help policymakers and program implementers understand and address the HIV needs and human rights of people who inject drugs.
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Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women
Van Damme L. Corneli A, Ahmed K, Agot K, Lombaard J, Kapiga S, Malaheleha M, Owino F, Manongi R, Onyango J, Temu L, Monedi MC, Mak’Oketch P, Makanda M, Reblin I, Makatu SE, Saylor L, Kiernan H, Kirkendale S, Wong C, Grant R, Kashuba A, Nanda K, Mandala J, Fransen K, Deese J, Crucitti T, Mastro TD, Taylor D on behalf of the FEM-PrEP study group
New England Journal of Medicine. 2012; 367 (5): 411-22
Pre-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of HIV infection in some trials but not in others. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assigned 2,120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or placebo once daily to assess the effectiveness of TDF-FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. Prophylaxis with TDF-FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low.
ARV-based HIV prevention for women – where we are in 2014
Mastro TD, Sista N, Abdool-Karim Q
Journal of the International AIDS Society. 2014; 17 (suppl 2): 19154
Women continue to be at special risk for HIV acquisition due to a complex mix of biological, behavioral, structural, cultural and social factors, with unacceptable rates of new infection. Scientific advances over the past decade have highlighted the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV acquisition (sexually, parenterally and vertically) and ARV treatment (ART) for HIV-positive patients to prevent onward transmission (treatment as prevention, or TasP). This paper reviews the evidence base for PrEP and TasP and describes new products in development and the need to translate research findings into programs with impact at the population level.
The evolving HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in India and the need for a heightened response (editorial)
Mastro TD, George B, Osborne K
AIDS. 2015; 29: 629-31
India has 2.1 million people living with HIV infection, however HIV prevalence ratios are very low except in key populations most at risk for transmission. This editorial reviews a report of a large, 15-city, cross-sectional study of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) that revealed a severe, geographically and demographically evolving HIV epidemic among PWIDs. The authors believe strong data on size estimations of key populations and a better understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and the interventions that can improve the prevention, care, and treatment cascade can be used to guide investments for key population services.